This major two volume work presents a new decision making tool which enables manufacturers and scientists to undertake life-cycle assessment (LCA) of new products from the design and development stages. The methodology allows the enviromental consequences of a product to enter into decision making in the same way as traditional commercial parameters such as price, quality, etc. Significantly, it is in accordance with international consensus, as defined by SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Moreover, the individual steps have been made operational through the creation of a collection of tools for assessment. The books are derived from the Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP) programme organized by the Technical University of Denmark and five leading Danish companies. The project was sponsored by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Confederation of Danish Industries.